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OVERVIEW OF MACHINE VISION
Machine vision is the use of optical non-contact sensing to automatically acquire and interpret images, in order to obtain information
and/or control machines or processes. A typical machine vision system consists of one or more monochrome or color video cameras,
lighting, vision hardware (frame grabber and/or processor board), vision software (image processing/analysis), and a computer system.
Machine vision is widely deployed in industry to improve productivity and quality. Inspection systems can process both two-dimensional
and three-dimensional images using grayscale or color image analysis. Common industrial uses of machine vision include assembly
verification, defect detection, gauging, identification, alignment, robotic assembly and control, sorting/grading, OCR/OCV,
and process control.
Successful implementation of machine vision requires skill and knowledge in many different areas.
Among the many disciplines involved in industrial machine vision technology are:
Image processing/image analysis
Algorithms and software engineering
Lighting, optics, and sensor technology
Analog, digital, and video electronics
Industrial and manufacturing engineering
In 2004, the North
American machine vision market exceeded $1.8 billion dollars, including sales from manufacturers, system integrators and OEMs.
Globally, revenues from machine vision in 2004 were approximately $8.1 billion, including value-added contributions. Principal
users of machine vision technology include the electronics, semiconductor, automotive, food, and pharmaceutical industries, but applications
can be found in virtually every manufacturing industry.